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Thread: Where did chinese come from?

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    Where did chinese come from?

    Chinese are interesting asian stating the first people with uniquely long history (5000 years old). The most common view of chinese origin is that they come from the Yangtze and Yellow river, however the recent scientific evidences suggest that they come from the south east asia, and then expand to the northern parts of china .

    Phylogeographic Differentiation of Mitochondrial DNA in Han Chinese

    Yong-Gang Yao,1 Qing-Peng Kong,1 Hans-Jürgen Bandelt,2 Toomas Kivisild,3 and Ya-Ping Zhang1

    1Laboratory of Molecular Evolution and Genome Diversity, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China; 2Fachbereich Mathematik, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg; 3Department of Evolutional Biology, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Tartu University and Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia

    Received September 20, 2001; accepted for publication December 4, 2001; electronically published February 8, 2002.

    To characterize the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in Han Chinese from several provinces of China, we have sequenced the two hypervariable segments of the control region and the segment spanning nucleotide positions 1017110659 of the coding region, and we have identified a number of specific coding-region mutations by direct sequencing or restriction-fragmentlengthpolymorphism tests. This allows us to define new haplogroups (clades of the mtDNA phylogeny) and to dissect the Han mtDNA pool on a phylogenetic basis, which is a prerequisite for any fine-grained phylogeographic analysis, the interpretation of ancient mtDNA, or future complete mtDNA sequencing efforts. Some of the haplogroups under study differ considerably in frequencies across different provinces. The southernmost provinces show more pronounced contrasts in their regional Han mtDNA pools than the central and northern provinces. These and other features of the geographical distribution of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Han Chinese make an initial Paleolithic colonization from south to north plausible

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    Re: Where did chinese come from?

    http://www.xasa.es/grupos/soc/thread...e.japan/51/100

    The haplotypes of Manchuria are intermediate between koreans and
    northern chinese, being more like northern Han than koreans.
    I expect there was some significant amount of migration of the
    Jurchen with the Great Wall was extended to the north east. The
    morphology and genetics of shandong changed markedly and some korean
    and japanese markers could [Should] be from this region also.
    -> this indicates that han pushed indiginous people in shandong to northward
    The diversity of B46 haps is higher in manchuria than korea.
    Koreans can be compared with Japanese, some of the haplotypes in
    Koreans are missing in Japanese. These particular haplotypes are
    found extensively amoung the Khalkha of mongolia, and much of the
    history prior to the mongolian invasion has been lost. about 5 to 10%
    are either from mongolia or manchuria and are of recent origin.
    Two proximal groups, other than the Japanese have extensive
    similarity with the koreans. The Orochon and the Ainu and presumbably
    with more typing the indigeonous peoples of the Amur region. This
    probably extended along the eastern coast into korea, however the
    dynastic expansion of the han had diluted extensively the enterior of
    the country. My expectation is that prior to 2800 years ago there was
    no B46 in manchuria, in fact, one would be hard pressed to find it in
    northern china except in the wet rice farming cultures. It also
    probably did not exist on the Shandong.
    Therefore in considering what is Korea today, represented by unique
    haplotypes shared only between japanese(72%) and koreans one would
    probably predict that this people extended into manchuria and along
    the eastern coast to the amur region, and they were later compressed
    by polical events that occurred to their west.

    When one looks at haplotypes from asia one sees a gradient between
    all the peoples from northern china to thailand to taiwan (except
    aboriginals) and to parts of indonesia. Manchuria is marginally
    transitional between mongols, northern han and koreans, but the
    gradient steeps in slope sharply as one moved into Amur river region,
    korea, mongolia and western china. Particular examples of other
    compressions are in the mongolians. The haplotypes most unique to the
    mongolians are not found in Native Americans, where as those in
    Japanese and Ainu and other Eastern Siberians are. These unique
    haplotypes are found to be similar to non-Han peoples to the south
    and in Tibet.

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    Re: Where did chinese come from?

    This is way above my intellectual understanding. My brain froze up while trying to read. I am interested however. Sigh.............................................. ........................................I need a "system restore"!!!!!
    Nature laughs Last

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    Re: Where did chinese come from?

    Intersting, but very technical, I read a book on asimilar study conducted on the michocondial DNA of modern europeans and it turns that almost all modern Europeans (pop 650,000,000 approx.) are decended from seven individual women. I think the most interesting question is where did the Australian Aboriginal peoples come from, or at least how did they end in australia 40,000 years ago, apparently its a bit of a mystery.

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    Re: Where did chinese come from?

    Quote Originally Posted by Galbally
    Intersting, but very technical, I read a book on asimilar study conducted on the michocondial DNA of modern europeans and it turns that almost all modern Europeans (pop 650,000,000 approx.) are decended from seven individual women. I think the most interesting question is where did the Australian Aboriginal peoples come from, or at least how did they end in australia 40,000 years ago, apparently its a bit of a mystery.
    Would that be "The Seven Daughters of Eve"? I have a copy of the book myself. Very interesting it was too and full of surprises.

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    Re: Where did chinese come from?

    It's Not a Chinese World After All
    Paris, Monday, July 12, 1999


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    By Philip Bowring International Herald Tribune.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    HONG KONG - Genetics is a stirring subject for nationalists and historians. It is especially so for a China eager to underline the singularity of Chinese bloodlines and establish historical claims over neighbors. But genetic science has been dealing some rude shocks to those who like to use so-called racial identity for political purposes.

    This year, scientists announced that the closest genetic relatives of New Zealand's indigenous Maori people were to be found in Taiwan. The news stunned Chinese, especially those accustomed to believe in the uniqueness of the Chinese "race" and that Taiwan has been part of China from time immemorial.

    In a process which took thousands of years, the seafaring Malayo/Polynesian peoples colonized every island from Madagascar in the west to Tahiti and Hawaii in the east, and from Taiwan and southern Japan in the north to New Zealand.

    They reached their southernmost destination a millennium ago, or some 400 years before Han Chinese from the mainland began to settle in Taiwan. The Hans did not become the majority until about 250 years ago.

    On this Taiwan issue, genetics did not spring a surprise, although it underlines awkward facts for a Beijing government that has as much commitment to historical accuracy as Stalin's Soviet Encyclopedia did. But consider the shock to racist mythologizing of genetic mapping of groups of Chinese. The mapping is the work not of enemies eager to put down all things Chinese but of an international team of Chinese and other scientists working on a Chinese Human Genome Diversity Project.

    The project suggests that the original human inhabitants of China did not originate in the Chinese heartland, on the lands drained by the Yellow River or the Yangtze. They migrated into the region from the southwest. Worse still, from a Chinese racist perspective, they originated in Africa.

    That there was no specifically Chinese, or non-African, source of humankind may hardly be news elsewhere, but it is news to a China which has been pouring money into archaeological efforts to find a Chinese equivalent of the earliest African hominids.

    The genome project also demonstrates the wide variations of genetic makeup within China (even excluding latterly acquired territories such as Xinjiang) and the number of common factors linking Chinese and non-Chinese in East Asia.

    None of this should really come as a surprise. Body size, head shape and susceptibility to diseases have long been known to vary greatly between north and south in China. The latter people are often closer in appearance to Southeast Asians.

    Many Chinese, including some race-conscious descendants of migrants to Southeast Asia, have clung to blood-based beliefs, similar to 19th century Western ones, in "superior" and "inferior" races. Such racism has percolated into laws, including those of Hong Kong, where people of ''Chinese race'' - undefined but generally interpreted as ancestry - have long been given preferential treatment regardless of their current language, culture or nationality.

    Japan, of course, has harbored some of the same myths, and as a result has long confined its citizens of Korean ancestry to inferior status. Japanese genetic origins are far more diverse than the nation's cultural homogeneity would suggest.

    At a time when Chinese nationalism is on the rise, genetic science will be a doing a service if it keeps Chinese identity channeled into cultural and political spheres where it belongs, rather than flirting with spurious "blood" concepts that have caused such suffering elsewhere.

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    Re: Where did chinese come from?

    I did find another theory for where the Maori come from, based on different evidence.

    http://www.time.com/time/magazine/19...story_i9a.html

    SOUTH PACIFIC
    SEPTEMBER 7, 1998 NO. 36
    History In Their Blood
    DNA studies confirm Maori beliefs about their ancestors' origins
    By SIMON ROBINSON/AUCKLAND

    A battered double-hulled canoe fights through a foaming sea. A group of emaciated Polynesians lie exhausted and dying below a tattered sail. Suddenly, one man glimpses a speck of land off in the distance. Propping himself up in the prow, he points it out to the others. New Zealand's most famous painting, an 1898 work by Charles Goldie and Louis Steele called The Arrival of the Maoris in New Zealand, may be based on a European colonists' myth, but it remains a vivid reminder that, like the country's white settlers, Polynesians arrived in New Zealand from across the ocean.

    But when, and from where? A new study of DNA taken from modern Maori confirms what Maori oral history has long maintained: that Polynesians from the Cook Islands area 3,000 km to New Zealand's northeast set off on deliberate voyages of discovery and found the uninhabited islands their descendants would call Aotearoa about 1,000 years ago. "Our oral history has often been criticized for being imprecise," says Professor Mason Durie, head of Maori Studies at Palmerston North's Massey University. "This is saying: Don't take our traditions too lightly."

    This article suggests the SouthEast Asian area as their origin, with the possibility of Taiwan being a stepping place, but it is still a "missing link" in the migration pattern.

    Using the Hardy-Weinberg Principle of Genetics the current theory you proposed in the previous post is the current one, examinig the DNA portions that contain the influence of alcohol in the body. The second strand does not exist among thesamples taken of the Maori today. It will be interesting to see what new theory emerges in the future.

    There is a migration study being done by National Geographic, but it is offline this weekend, I was going to look at their data base for a response-they must be inputting some materials. There is a very good basic map of migration patterns worldwide.

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    Re: Where did chinese come from?

    I think in the past peoples were a lot more travelled and knew of other aeas than we give them credit for. As the ice age ended there must have been a lot of settled areas that were lost-even today most settlement are along coastlines.

    One thing that has always puzzled me. If the epicanthic folds and brown eyes of asian peoples are an adaptation to cope with extreme cold and bright sunlight reflecting off ice fields, how do north europeans end up with pale skin to better absorb vitamin whatever it is and blue eyes to see better in poor lighting conditions.

    Living in the north I can see the point of the latter but both must have had to deal with extreme cold as well so why not blue eyes and epicanthic folds?

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    Re: Where did chinese come from?


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    Re: Where did chinese come from?

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